Caravaggio

Caravaggio

Michelangelo Merisi (or Amerigi) da Caravaggio (Italian: Caravaggio), named after the city of Caravaggio (near Milan), is an Italian artist. With his introduced technique of dramatic illumination of individual figures on a dark background, combined with a realistic representation of the human condition (physical and emotional), he became one of the founders of Baroque painting. Caravaggio's large compositions are dominated by drama, while the small ones, as well as the portraits, are calm. Rejecting the traditional idealized images for iconography, he chose as models of his apostles and saints ordinary people. Reproduces exactly the skin, wrinkles and fabrics of their clothes. Caravaggio studied in Milan under Simeon Peterzano, who studied with Titian. At the end of the 16th century, he moved to Rome, where many new churches and palaces were being built, and artists were needed to paint them. During the Counter-Reformation, the Roman Catholic Church sought religious art to respond to the threats of Protestantism. To this end, mannerism was created, which became a leading trend in cultural life after the Renaissance ceased to meet the needs of society. The novelty in Caravaggio's work is the drastic naturalism, which combines the observation of the physical environment and the dramatic, even theatrical use of light and shadow. This change from light to darkness with a relatively rapid transition became known as Tenebrism. Caravaggio caused a real sensation when in 1600 he presented "The Martyrdom of St. Matthew" and "The Call of St. Matthew" - his first public contracts. After that moment, he never lacks orders or ammunition, but he still finds it difficult to succeed. He was arrested several times, vandalized his own apartment and eventually received the death sentence from the pope. An early publication about him from 1604 describes his way of life in the previous three years. It tells how "after two weeks of work, he flaunts himself for about a month or two, carrying a sword and followed by a servant, walking around the yards one after the other, ready to fight or grill, so his company is extremely strange." In 1606, Caravaggio killed a young man after an argument, then left Rome with a reward announced for his head. He was involved in disputes in both Malta in 1608 and Naples in 1609, which may have been done deliberately by unknown enemies. The latest incident seriously injured him. A year later, at the age of 38, he died under mysterious circumstances in Porto Ecole on his way to Rome to seek forgiveness. It is said that the cause of his death was fever. Famous during his lifetime, Caravaggio was forgotten almost immediately after his death, and it was not until the 20th century that his importance to Western art was rediscovered. Moreover, his influence on the Baroque, which arose from the ruins of Mannerism, was more than decisive. It is seen directly in the works of Rubens, Jose de Ribera, Bernini and Rembrandt. Artists after his generation were called Caravaggioists and Tenebrists.